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This is the built-in help made by Microsoft for the document 'about_CIMSession', in PowerShell version 5 - as retrieved from Windows version 'Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 Standard' PowerShell help files on 2016-06-24.

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Describes a CimSession object and the difference between CIM sessions and
Windows PowerShell sessions.

A Common Information Model (CIM) session is a client-side object that
represents a connection to a local computer or a remote computer. You can
use CIM sessions as an alternative to Windows PowerShell sessions
(PSSessions). Both approaches have advantages.

You can use the New-CimSession cmdlet to create a CIM session that contains
information about a connection, such as computer name, the protocol used
for the connection, session ID, and instance ID.

After you create a CimSession object that specifies information required to
establish a connection, Windows PowerShell does not establish the
connection immediately. When a cmdlet uses the CIM session,
Windows PowerShell connects to the specified computer, and then, when the
cmdlet finishes, Windows PowerShell terminates the connection.

If you create a PSSession instead of using a CIM session,
Windows PowerShell validates connection settings, and then establishes and
maintains the connection. If you use CIM sessions, Windows PowerShell
does not open a network connection until needed. For more information about
Windows PowerShell sessions, see about_PSSessions.

When to Use a CIM Session

Only cmdlets that work with a Windows Management Infrastructure (WMI)
provider accept CIM sessions. For other cmdlets, use PSSessions.

When you use a CIM session, Windows PowerShell runs the cmdlet on the
local client. It connects to the WMI provider by using the CIM session.
The target computer does not require Windows PowerShell, or even any
version of the Windows operating system.

In contrast, a cmdlet run by using a PSSession runs on the target
computer. It requires Windows PowerShell on the target system.
Furthermore, the cmdlet sends data back to the local computer.
Windows PowerShell manages the data sent over the connection, and keeps
the size within the limits set by Windows Remote Management (WinRM). CIM
sessions do not impose the WinRM limits.

PSSessions only work with WinRM. CimSessions can use DCOM.

CIM-based Cmdlet Definition XML (CDXML) cmdlets can be written to use any
WMI Provider. All WMI providers use CimSession objects.